Jan 26, 2008
Jan 21, 2008
- BBC World Service/Learning English/Quizzes
- 英文法大全 (詳しい解説)
- Chick Tack 英語の5文型
- EnglishPage.com (オンライン練習問題つき)
- BBC Skillwise
- Interesting Things for ESL Students-Grammar (オンライン練習問題集)
- Activities for ESL Students (オンライン練習問題集) □English Grammar Quizzes Using Java Script □Flash Quizzes for English Study
- ヒアリング道場 (SPACE ALC)
- レベル診断テストリスニング編 (SPACE ALC)
- TOEFLリスニングドリル (SPACE ALC)
- 発音が聞ける！英語学習サイト 英語の森
- American english Pronunciation Practice (Interesting Things for ESL Students)
- Randall's Cyber ESL Listening Lab
- English Language Listening Lab Online
- eigozai VOA Special English で英語を学ぼう
- English as a Second Language (ESL) Podcasts
- 英語ニュースの学習サイト：初心者にやさしい英語ニュース (メルマガ)
- TOEIC Vocabulary Tests Online (English Tests Online)
- English-Japanese Vocabulary Quizzes
- Homonyms (同音異義語) (Interesting Things for ESL Students)
- CNN Learning Resources
- ESL Independent Study Lab
- Everyday English in Conversation
- Campus Life -- Letters from Ohio State University (Explain yourself! By Akio Iijima)
- Essay- Working place
- News 英語ニュース
Jan 20, 2008
Jan 18, 2008
Jan 17, 2008
Jan 16, 2008
Some employers hire children because they can pay them less money. They also offer poor working conditions because children are less likely to complain.
Source: Free the children
Jan 13, 2008
will, can, must, may, could, would, need not, should, shall
練習問題集：Modal Verb Tutorial （解説ページあり）
should vs. had better
Jan 10, 2008
(Microsoft Office Online)
!!! The Office Online ActiveX control is needed to automatically download and open Office Online templates on your computer. The ActiveX control is also needed to verify whether you are running genuine Microsoft Office software.
Jan 9, 2008
3. He introduced a dramatic story to Manga, and built up the origin of modern Manga.
Although he has been dead for almost 20 years, even now people respect him “God of Manga”.
4. In the year 1961, he established “Tezuka animation production” and he produced "Tetsuwan Atomu" that was the first serial animation program in Japan for television.
★made it public in the year 1947
★19 years old at that time
★had a circulation of 400,000
★drew Story manga more than 100 pages long
Manga from 4 pages to 6 pages long was inserted in monthly Shounen magazine then.
1. He established Story manga.
Story manga is Manga that runs to more than a few pages against one frame manga and four frames manga.
5. Shoujo manga become a trend that streamlines past ornamental representaition in the 1980’s.
★draw the simple background
★don't insert catch-light into character’s eyes
4. Ornamental representation unique to Shoujo manga developed from the late 1950’s to the 1960’s
★draw flowers in the back of character
★insert catch-light into character’s eyes
★That representation was given an influence on Takarazuka revue and Shoujoga drawn by Makoto Takahashi and others.
Jan 8, 2008
1. Pretty and beautiful picture is large.
2. Shoujo manga is avoided drawing the background naturally, and is made a point of the character’s feelins.
3. Works that deal with love are the main current.Love comedy, Gakuen manga, etc enjoy long-standing popularity up to now.
3. "The Japan Punch" of a Manga magazine was issued by Charles Wirgman at Yokohama-kyoryuchi in the year 1862.
4. The first serial Manga in Japan is a work drawn by Beisaku Taguchi.
It was inserted in “Marumaruchinbun” that typifies the Meiji period.
5. A lending library disseminated after war, because books and magazines were expensive.
The sold number of them amounts to 36.7% of the total published matter that was sold in the year 2006.Japanese Manga is widely watched to all over the world. It’s also translated and is published in many countries in the world.
1. The oldest Manga in Japan is “Chojujinbutsugiga” that is a picture scroll of the Heian period.
2. Ukiyoe appeared in the 19th century.
"Hokusai manga” of Hokusai Katsushika is particularly famous.
Children Not Working, Children Working Legally, Children in Not Hazardous Work, Children in Hazardous Work
1248.9, 99.7, 91.4, 126.3
Age 5-14 2004 No. (million)
Children Not Working, Children Working legally, Children in Not Hazardous Work, Children in Hazardous Work
1015.8, 24.9, 91.4, 74.4
Source: Global Child Labor Trends 2000-2004 (ISBN 92-2-118718-7 Date 6/2006)
No. 138 Minimum Age Convention, 1973
Minimum ages depending on the type of employment or work:
(1) the minimum age should not be
- less than the age for completing compulsory schooling
- not less than age 15
* For countries whose economic and educational facilities are insufficiently developed, the age can be set initially at 14.
(2) a higher minimum age should be set for hazardous work:
- not less than 18
* The types of employment or work deemed to be hazardous shall be determined by national laws or regulations or by the competent authority.
(3) in the case of light work, the minimum age can be set
- at 13 years
- at 12 years where the economy and educational facilities are insufficiently developed
Full Text of Convention No. 138
No. 182 Worst forms of child labour, 1992
- all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery, such as the sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage, serfdom and forced or compulsory labour;
- forced or compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict;
- use of a child for prostitution, production of pornography or pornographic performances;
- use, procuring or offering of a child for illicit activities, in particular for the production and trafficking of drugs; and,
- work which is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children.
Full Text of Convention No. 182
A child carries unbaked bricks to a kiln at a brick factory in Raichak, India, in December 2000. Scenes like this remain a fact of life in India, despite a longtime ban on hard labor by children.
Frequently Asked Questions
* What is child labor?
* What is a child?
* Who are child laborers and how many are there?
* Where do child laborers live?
* Is there child labor in the United States?
* What do child laborers do?
* Why should we care?
* How can ordinary people help reduce child labor?
* How was child labor reduced in today's developed countries?
* What are some of the myths or misunderstandings about child labor?
* What causes child labor today?
* What are some of the solutions to child labor today?
- 12 to 17 (varies between provinces).
- Pennsylvania - 14
- California - 14 - 16, depending on field of employment.
- New Jersey - 12 - 18, depending on job .
- New York - 14 with parental consent depending on the job, 16 depending on the job, or 18 depending on the job.
- Washington - 12 for light agricultural work by hand. 14 for most other agricultural work. 16 for non-hazardous jobs. 18 for all jobs.
- Florida - 14
- North Carolina 16, depending on field of employment.
- The minimum age is usually 14 years, 9 months, however some families and employers would rather wait until someone is 15 before they are allowed to work. (This varies slightly between states.)
- 15-16 in most jobs, younger if employer wants.16 full times jobs
- 13 - Part time work WorkSmart from the TUC shows that the type of work is restricted to light agricultural or horticultural work or as allowed by by-laws. Thus, the true minimum age for general work is 14 years.
- 16 - Full time (if left school)
- 18 - Night Work
- 13 - Light work. Max 12 hours each week, 2 hours for a schoolday, 7 hours in weekends.
- 15 - Non-dangerous work, that doesn't conflict with school. No nightwork, no more than 40 hours work for a week.
- 18 - All work
Child Labor - Wikipedia
Guarcello, L., Lyon, S. & Rosati, F. (2004)
First, child labour tends to be concentrated in particularly dangerous industries. ... With respect to health hazards, work in transport, construction and mining appear to be the very worst forms of child labour. (pp. 10-11)
A second factor raising the health risks faced by child labourers relative to adults derives from the fact that children often work in informal, small scale and illegal settings which, by their very nature, are difficult to regulate (Fassa et al, 2000). ... protection promised by health and safety regulation. Even when this protection is available, it is likely to be much less effective for children since the measures are usually designed for adult, and not child, workers (ILO, 1998; Fassa et al, 2000). Hence, safety devices and clothing may not be usable by children and permissible exposure limits are usually established for adults and may not be appropriate for children. (p.11)
Given their physiological and psychological immaturity and the biological process of growth, children may be more vulnerable than adults to abuse and to given health risks. Children are more prone to injury through accidents and have been found
to be more sensitive to noise, heat, lead and silica toxicity, and ionising radiation
(Bequele and Myers, 1995; Forastieri, 1997; ILO, 1998; Fassa et al, 2000; and Woodhead, 2004). Working long hours also takes a greater physical toll on children.
Tired children may be at greater risk of contracting disease and have less strength to combat them. (p.11)
Long-run, direct effects:
While many of the health risks child labourers are exposed to threaten immediate damage to health, others are likely to develop over many years and might only become manifest in adulthood. Exposures to pesticides, chemicals, dusts and carcinogenic agents in agriculture, mining and quarrying and manufacturing increase the risks of developing bronchial complaints, cancers and a wide variety of diseases
(Forastieri, 1997; ILO, 1998; Fassa et al, 2000). In India, industries with large proportions of child labourers also tend to have high rates of TB and silicosis; stonecutters and slate workers, for example, have silicosis rates of 35 percent and 55 percent respectively (Parker, 1997). Cancer risks are raised significantly through exposure to asbestos in mining and construction and to aniline dyes in carpet and garment manufacturing (ILO, 1998). Ergonomic factors such as heavy lifting and poor posture raise the chances of musculoskeletal problems developing in later life
(Forastieri, 1997; ILO, 1998; Fassa et al, 2000).
Long-run, indirect effects:
An intuitively appealing proposition is that child labour is at the expense of education. If this is true, then, even in the absence of any direct effect of child work activity on health, there can be indirect effect through the sacrifice of education. A lower level of educational attainment might impact negatively on health through two mechanisms.
(1) Lower education --> Lower earnings
(2) Lower education --> Less informed of health production mechanisms
Jan 7, 2008
Jan 4, 2008
11 Dead, Dozens of Others Poisoned by Tainted Vodka - UB Post
Vodka banned as poison kills eleven in Mongolia
Tainted Vodka Kills Dozens as Russians Turn to Bootleg Liquor- New Law Pushes Up Alcohol Prices
Jan 1, 2008
- GrammarI (b) ... 1年生 ◆シラバス
- 基礎演習I ... 1年生 ◆シラバス
- 英語科教育法I ... 2年生 ◆シラバス
- Computer Communication ... 2年生以上 ◆シラバス
- TOEIC中級 ... 2年生以上 ◆シラバス
- 演習III ... 4年生 ◆シラバス